For conventional printed matter, the usual printing method is lithography. Therefore, the printing method to be introduced below refers to lithography.
Printing methods can be divided into monochrome printing and multi-color printing. In a printing process, when only one ink color is printed on the substrate, it is called monochrome printing (including monochrome and spot color). In a printing process, printing two or more ink colors on the substrate is called multicolor printing. In terms of the current situation of domestic printing enterprises, monochrome and two-color printing are generally completed by domestic printing machines.
Four color and above prints and some two-color prints with high requirements are generally completed by imported printing machines. Therefore, in terms of cost, the cost of monochrome prints is low, and then the order from low to high is spot color, two-color, four-color and above prints.
The printing method of monochrome, two-color, four-color or more can be determined according to the characteristics of the following printing methods.
1、 Monochrome printing:
1. Black and white monochrome: the printing method that usually prints only black on the substrate is called black and white printing. Because the color of the paper is usually white, in order to facilitate reading, most of the printed matter is printed in black and white. Black and white printing also has the characteristics of high quality and low price, so it is a common printing method in the printing industry. Black and white printing is suitable for printed materials dominated by text and line drawings.
2. Spot color printing: usually, only one color other than black is printed on the substrate, which is called spot color printing. Such as blue, red, green or special single color (spot color). In recent years, spot color printing has also been widely used in order to save costs and make books and periodicals look beautiful, lively and colorful. In spot color printing, in order to further enhance the effect of color, a book can be printed with several different spot colors at the same time. Printing in this way requires higher requirements for typesetting, composition and printing. Each link should grasp the principle that the content (page number) on the same printing plate can only be printed in the same color, Otherwise, this way will lose its meaning. The cost of spot color printing is relatively higher than that of black-and-white printing.
2、 Two color printing:
Two color printing is suitable for general popular science books, primary and secondary school textbooks and simple publicity prints with lively layout and prominent graphic comparison. It is characterized by color effect, relatively low cost and low requirements for paper. Offset paper and light paper are generally used.
3、 Four color and above printing:
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Four color printing can well reproduce the artistic effect of works. It has high requirements for typesetting, film (film, film), printing plate, ink, equipment and operators, and high cost. Four color printing is suitable for medium and high-grade prints with a large number of color pictures in the text. Such as brochures, picture albums and covers. It should be said that the selection of several colors for printing has laid a foundation for the selection of typesetting methods and paper. In addition, offset printing is divided into flat sheet printing and rotary printing according to the degree of mechanization. Flat sheet printing is characterized by saving paper, but it is slower than rotary printing. Rotary printing is characterized by greater paper loss than flat sheet printing, but the printing speed is fast, and the accompanying folding work is completed at the same time after printing. Rotary printing is generally suitable for printing more than 10000, Printed matter requiring shorter publication time. In recent years, a large number of eight color large format wheel transfer printing machines have been introduced, which not only enriches the printing market of journals, magazines and teaching materials, but also has a great impact on the price and construction period of flat four-color offset press.
4、 Digital printing:
Digital printing is different from offset printing. It is a printing method without film, plate and pressure. Digital printing realizes one step of prepress and printing, and there is no problem of sharing prepress cost. Therefore, no matter how many copies are printed, it will not affect the single page cost. It is suitable for on-demand printing, personalized printing and remote printing, and it is suitable for short print with less than 200 copies. Due to the complex processing of digital ink and toner, high cost and high quality of operators, the unit price of digital printing is still high.
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